الكِتــابـة على الجُدران
الكِتــابـة على الجُدران
Writing on The Walls
الهدف من البحث:
الكتابة على الجدران..ظاهرةٌ لازالت في انتشار, بل أصبحت تُمثلُ مُنحدراً سلوكياً سيئاً في أغلبِ المواقف خاصةً وأنها تكونُ ناتجةً عن عِدةِ عواملٍ منها العامل النفسي للكاتب مايدفعهُ الى مثل ذلكَ التصرفِ غيرِ اللائِقِ لااجتماعياً ولا أخلاقياً.
تعتبرُ ظاهرةُ الكتابةِ على الجدران للبعضِ وسيلةً للمُحاكاةِ معَ النفسِ أو التعبيرِ عن الذات والرأيِ والخواطرِ الدفينة.. كما وتُستخدمُ كذلكَ كوسيلةٍ للفتِ الإنتباهِ أو تشويهِ سُمعةِ الآخرين, أو للتسببِ بالأضرار للمُمتلكاتِ العامة أو الخاصة..
أسبابُ هذهِ الظاهرة كثيرة.. ونتائجها وخيمة على الأغلب.. فكان من الضروري تسليط الضوء على هذهِ الدراسة للتعرفِ على حجمها,وتحديدِ مسبباتها وطرقِ القضاءِ عليها . ملتفتينَ بذاتِ الوقتِ الى الجانبِ الفني والإيجابي للكتابةِ على الجدران بتسليط الضوء على فن الكرافيتي (الكتابة والرسم الفني على الجدران), ولو بشكل مبسط...
Sarah Falih Hassan Al_Duboony
BA In English language
College of Arts/ University of Basra
Writing on walls is a phenomenon which has been enlarging day after day to the extent that it causes a great damage to the government and private properties. It is popular all over the world. Ratio of people who write on walls depend on social, economic and educational standard of them. It is more experienced by school boys and girls. College students are not excluded. Walls, fences, desks and bathrooms are turned to be web sites on which they put their thoughts, hobbies, hopes, pains and silly ambitions.
Scribbling on the walls is a kind of infatuation for some people who try to express themselves through writing on walls. For some countries, Graffiti is an art which people admire very much. In some cases, graffiti is necessary to change the shape of walls. For example, In Iraq, we notice that artists use the concrete walls to draw very nice graffiti. But when we talk about the writing on walls, we focus on the bad aspect of the phenomenon.
"If you`ve ever had the intense pleasure of sitting down in a public restroom, you`ve likely accustomed to the crude, awful, lewd, stupid and sometimes funny things scribbled on the bathrooms walls.
Who knows, you might find something meaningful. People carry out entire argument, back and forth, scribbled across the walls. Feel free to add interesting bathroom_ wall conversation. Such scribbled often result Memorial_ Quote". ( http//adviswiki.org/ conversation_ bathroom_ walls )
In more civilized countries, people practice this conduct in less degree rather than in third world countries. They start writing on their bodies through tattoos. Although writing on bathroom walls and classes desks and walls are more popular, but we find people use fences, walls, doors and sometimes traffic signs or trees to frustrate themselves. Sometimes it`s used to encourage a certain football team and attack another. A media screen for election or show self hatred against others. Teenagers express their heart feelings on walls, desks and even trees. Writing on walls in it`s bad side is found everywhere.
Who`re Involved In Writing on Walls??!!
Gender, age, education, and social environment of person who writes on walls is normal. We can find writing of all kinds in the schools of girls as much as we find in the boys ones. A visit to a female school shows that scratches on walls, doors, and desks. No need to motion what kind of writing there are. Another visit to male school puts you against common scratches. Most of scratches show some students hatred against their teachers or colleagues. Teenagers who are (13_19) years old are more accused. Even though, a short visit to colleges bathrooms or quick look at their desks, we can observe another way of writing. It is not that much different from writing of primary or secondary students. But in both cases, it shows a certain kind of manifestation. Lack of freedom and perocracy oblige weak people to express themselves on walls. Personality and education of person reflect his behavior. In public bathroom, we can observe the difference of education very clear in the way of writing and the words and thoughts chosen. As it is public bathroom, we find different levels of thought expressing what these people have in mind and can`t declare it loudly.
It`s also worth to mention that classes walls and desks there are used as common method for cheating. We can observe the size of damage caused by the student to the desks and walls. This is familiar in primary, secondary, and college levels of study. Ratioto the people who write on the walls all over the world depends on the social, economic, and educational standard of life
People in Europe and west in general are more civilized in this matter than those in the rest of the world.
We notice that they behave in less degree in this concern. Young people write on the walls of bathrooms and some fences secretly, and they are totally forbidden from writing on desks.
Alexa Gonzalez, (12 years old), was scribbling some words on her desks. She wrote (I love my friends Abbe and Faith)!!, and instead of simply cleaning off, she was led out of school in cuffs and taken to the police station to stay there for many hours. She`s still suspended from her school. Alexia was the latest in a string of city students who have been cuffed for minor infractions.In 2007, 13_years_old Chelsea Fraser was placed under arrest for writing "okay" on her desk, and in 2008 , 5_years_old Dennis Rivera was cuffed and sent to a psych ward after throwing a fit in his kindergarten
Cheaters have their share in the pie as well. They use class walls and desks as cheating sheets. A free charge advertisement will be found on walls and fences. In time, these advertisement make walls and fences look dirty, ugly, and damaged. A media for election, parties emblems, and sometimes religious thoughts.
People of the west have some progress in the writing on walls. They start writing on their own bodies. We can observe different kind of writing or graffiti put on male or female bodies. Most people get tattooed to mark a significant aspect of themselves or their life.They may honor their family and loved ones in tattoo designs, or maybe they want to define their own unique and individualstyle. Another reason people may get tattooed is to cover up scar tissue, such as opting for breast tattoo post _mastectomy. (http://tattoo.about.com/ /tattooed.htm )
We can observe this phenomenon (writing on walls) practiced in the poor districts more than the rich ones.
Reasons for writing on walls:
Someone confesses that he was afflicted with the habit of writing on the walls in the secondary school. He says he finds it a kind of frustration especially there`re friends around him who encourage him and behave like him simultaneously. He says he was not aware of anything abnormal with this conduct until he was caught by the head master and dismissed from his school because he attached his teacher by writing lewd words on bathroom wall. Here under some of the reasons of writing on walls:
1_Some people write on walls to express what they have inside their personality. They manifest their needs, thoughts, social and psychic conditions by using different ways. Unfortunately, writing on wall.
2_Writing on walls is a way to draw somebody else attention.
3_It`s a way of Memorial Quotes.
4_Writing on walls show the hidden hatred of some people against government or private properties. So, it`s a way of damage.
5_Writing on walls sometimes used to effect on others and cause problems for them.
6_Some people are fanatic to a certain football team, so they write encouraging words for this team and be bad words for other team or teams.
7_Writing on walls is sometimes used as a plot against others to harm them.
8_It`s a historical andunconscious action for some people.
9_Teenagers use this phenomenon to express their feelings as they can`t do that in public.
10_Students write on walls or in an attempt to cheat in their exams.
11_People who have no trust in themselves and the lack of real education are reasons to write on walls.
12_The effect of the parents and the environment a person grows up also leads to such conduct.
13_Unfortunately, some of people who`re supposed to be leaders for the society through joining the parliament, especially in Iraq, use the walls as a media for their promises..!
Pieces of Advice:
Since his childhood, a man has the interest to write on walls. He starts scratching on wall by using any writing instrument he finds. Parents roll is to show this kid how to behave properly and give him good examples of behavior. He must be taught properly that writing on walls is one of the bad habits. Parents must watch their child`s behavior and correct it wherever needed. Never neglect any bad action committed by the child.
Lectures and booklets are important to draw the people attention to the fact that this phenomenon causes a great damage to the government and private properties. Everyone must know that it is against manners, rules and religion. Writing on walls is a bad habit acted in poor and less educated territories.
Punishment is necessary. Anyone caught practicing writing on walls or desks must be fined in addition to further penalties. Painting Walls every year is not the solution. Authorities concerned must study this phenomenon and state the solutions. Constant visits by the education superintendents schools and instructing students about this bad habits, are very important, taking into consideration that painting the walls of schools every year is not the solution.!!!
Finally, Faces of beauty must be taken into consideration. People should feel the taste of beauty in everything, and pay attention to graffiti and exploit the good practice of it. Graffiti in Iraq becomes necessary to cover the bad shape of the concrete walls scattered everywhere. Artists must be encouraged to use paintings and signs properly.
The GoodSide of Writing on Walls (Graffiti):
When we talk about writing on the walls, we must differentiate between the nice work of graffiti which is practiced by ancient Egyptian, Sumerian, and others to decorate their housing and turn to be a wonderful art admired everywhere, and the scratching and scribbling on the walls of bathrooms, classes and fences acted by some people..
Graffiti is a term applied to the arrangement of institutionally illicit marks in which there has been an attempt by an individual or group of individuals (usually not professional artists) to display upon a wall or surface that is usually visually accessible to the public.
Graffiti is not only a work of art, it`s also includes the underground culture that surrounds and revers that art. Graffiti has been found in early societies, but most commonly associated with the modern, urban environment. ( D:/graffiti/ Essays on Social Issues_ College Papers ).
It`s a massage of drawing created, most often illegally, on a public surface. Some scholars compare it to ancient art forms like hieroglyphics and cave paintings. ( http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/hip-hop2.htm )
Actually, graffiti is not only those modern pictures on the walls. Some pictures and scratches in the ancient caves are also regarded as graffiti. ( D:/ graffiti/ Getting over the wall_ Term paper).
The ancient Sumerians carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which also survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the classical world had different connotations than it carries in today's society concerning content. Ancient graffiti displayed phrases of love declarations, political rhetoric, and simple words of thought compared to today's popular messages of social and political ideals. The earliest forms of graffiti date back to 30,000 years in the form of prehistoric cave painting and pictographs using tools such as animal bones and pigments. The images drawn on the walls shows the scenes of animal wildlife and haunting expeditions in most circumstances. Historical forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures.
In America around the 1969s, graffiti was used as a form of expression by political activities, as well as a form of hip hop.
Today, graffiti is considered as an art. It`s evolved from simple magic marker tags to colorful, whole_ train and building murals. Graffiti have appeared in galleries in Milan, London, Paris, and many other countries. (http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/hip-hop2.htm )
Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, and writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different types and styles of graffiti and it is a rapidly developing art form whose value is highly contested and reviled by many authorities while also subject to protection, sometimes within the same jurisdiction.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GraffitiIn Iraq for example, particularly in Basra, artists find it a way of manifestation to express themselves by graffiti and it is a way to earn their livings . Authorities call them to use their art to hide the ugly shape of CTW .
A graffiti is also used as method by which people can advertise . Only in Iraq , parties and nominies for the Parliament can use wall for their campaign . There is no specific law or regulations to prevent such deeds .
The habit of writing on walls depends on the nature of social and cultural environments, that there are many words scratched on walls full of spelling mistakes which means that the person who wrote them is not enough educated, and so on. Even though, we can find this phenomenon in the civilized districts as well, and it can be noticed in the streets, schools as well as in colleges. This habit is spread all over the world. One of the most important reasons for writing on walls is to express one`s needs, thinking, and social, psychic as well as his economic circumstanes. Some countries consider the writing on walls as a crime, one might be sentenced for it !
Graffiti is the good face of writing on walls which has existed since the days of ancient civilizations. it has involved over time into what is called "modern graffiti". Graffiti was also well_ knownduring the renaissance era, and the artists of that time curved or painted their names and thoughts and returned with styles of decoration. Then, graffiti was spread all over the world including Iraq, especially after the third gulf war in 2003 as a way to hide the ugly shape of the CTW by drawing fascinating paintings on them. There are many reasons for people to write on walls, seats, and other surfaces, but Punishment is necessary, writing on walls or desks must be fined in addition to further penalties
Last to say is that educationis the main key to turn writing on walls as a bad behaviorwhich causes problems or turn it to be a civilizedand artistic phenomenon which helps in making countriesadvanced.
_ Brown, Andrew. Using a pen helps us discover thoughts_ but the writing on walls?. (http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/nov/26/handwriting-writing-keyboards)
_ C.H.Shon, Philip. How college students cheat on In class examination.( http://quod.lib.umich.edu/p/plag/5240451.0001.010/--how-college-students-cheat-on-in-class-examinations?rgn=main;view=fulltext)
_Conversation on bathroom walls. (http://daviswiki.org/Conversations_on_bathroom_walls)
_ Fredrick, Lisa. Discover the Draw of Writing on Walls. (http://www.houzz.com/ideabooks/5055607/list/Discover-the-Draw-of-Writing-on-the-Walls)
_ Graffiti - a Human Pastime. Thursday, july 27, 2006. ( http://cultureventure.blogspot.com/2006/07/graffiti-human-pastime.html)
_Mary McCarthy. The writing on walls. January 30, 1969. The New York Review of Books. ( http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1969/jan/30/the-writing-on-the-wall)/
_ Michalak, Jodie. Reasons people get tattooed. What`s the purpose of tattoos? ( http://tattoo.about.com/od/tatfaq/tp/Reasonspeoplegettattooed.htm)
_ Monahan, Rachel. Girl arrested for doodling !. Daily News Staff Writer.
_ Neer, Katherine. Hip_Hop and Graffiti. (http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/hip-hop2.htm)
_ Street Art. History of Graffiti. An English project by INS Viladecavalls. ( http://blocs.xtec.cat/streetart/history-of-graffiti/history-of-graffiti-1/) _ Werwath, Timothy. The culture and politics of graffiti art. Mar. 19, 2006. http://www.graffiti.org/faq/werwath/werwath.html
سارة فالح الدبوني
|ممتنةٌ لكم مروركم الطيب استاذ سعيد العذاري..
أناأحترم رأيكم ..ولكن لي وجهةُ نظري بأن الجُدران لم توجد لتكونَ سبوراتٍ تشوهها الشعارات..
وإن كانَ للشعاراتِ على الجُدرانِ تاريخ..إلا أنها اليوم لم تعد توجدُ في البلدان المتحضرة..
ولإطلاقِ الشعاراتِ في الشوارعِ ألفُ وسيلةٍ عوضاً عن كتابتها على جدران الشوارع..
سعيدةٌ بقرائتكم لبحثي
وألفُ شكرٍ لرأيكم المحترم
اخالفك الراي في مجال كتابة الشعارات السياسية على الجدران فانها تعبر عن حماس وتفاعل نفسي وروحي بل اخلاص الكاتب لافكاره وانتماءاته وجديته
تكثر بعد كل ثورة ثم تقل وتنعدم
لضعف الحماس والتفاعل مع الاحداث